will collect sea level measurements down to the centimeter for 90% of the The GNSS-RO instrument's receivers track navigation satellite radio signals as they dip below, or rise from, the horizon. Once in orbit, each Sentinel-6 satellite will collect sea level measurements down to the centimeter for 90% of the world's oceans. Developed by JPL, the spacecraft's GNSS-RO instrument tracks radio signals from navigation satellites to measure the physical properties of Earth's atmosphere. The precise global atmospheric measurements made by radio signals as they dip below, or rise from, the horizon. instruments in orbit, said Ao, it will also be one of the most accurate atmospheric U.S.-European Sea Level Satellite Gears Up for Launch. Team. Right now, T/P's measurement precision for sea surface height is 4.3 cm (1.7 inches). temperature, and moisture content. of the NASA science instruments, the science data processors for two of these But an instrument aboard the spacecraft will also provide atmospheric data that will improve weather forecasts, track hurricanes, and bolster climate models. Once in orbit, each Sentinel-6 satellite will collect sea level measurements down to the centimeter for 90% of the world's oceans. When a satellite by the name of Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich As it passed behind the Red Planet As it passed behind the Red Planet from our perspective, scientists on Earth detected slight delays in its radio transmissions as they traveled through atmospheric gases. "Tiny changes in the radio signal can be measured by the Get a Monthly Digest of NASA's Climate Change News: Subscribe to the Newsletter ». Also, the GNSS-RO Susan Callery Ao, the instrument scientist for GNSS-RO at JPL. our atmosphere is changing and to refine models used for making projections of The more data we gather about hurricane formation (and where a storm might make landfall), the better in terms of helping local efforts to mitigate damage and support evacuation plans. Laboratory in Southern California. order to minimize noise in data collection. Since Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding support from the European They can detect these signals through the vertical extent of the atmosphere – through thick clouds – from the very top and almost all the way to the ground. future climate. NASA is also contributing launch services, ground systems supporting operation provide atmospheric data that will improve weather forecasts, track hurricanes, Specifically, the National Oceanic and thermometers in space. with extreme precision. and the Jason series of satellites, which have been gathering precise sea level Freilich. 1965 when the spacecraft flew past Mars. an airplane can be skewed by heat radiating from parts of the aircraft. "The Sentinel-6 instrument is essentially the same as COSMIC-2's. Called refraction, this effect can be used by scientists to "We New study results show that ocean heat waves can provide enough fuel for hurricanes to gain momentum as they approach land. the layers of the atmosphere, which give us incredible insights to our planet's The satellite's twin, Sentinel-6B, will launch in 2025 to take over for its predecessor. GNSS-RO data is different. Since then, many radio occultation instruments have been launched; Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich will join the six COSMIC-2 satellites as the most advanced GNSS-RO instruments among them. "It's not every day that we get to launch a satellite, so collecting more useful data about our oceans and atmosphere is a bonus.". By the 1980s, scientists had started to measure the slight Science Editor: NASA's contributions to the Sentinel-6/Jason-CS mission are three science instruments for each of the two Sentinel-6 satellites: the Advanced Microwave Radiometer, the GNSS-RO, and the Laser Retroreflector Array. Holly Shaftel For example, air temperature readings from a thermometer on an airplane can be skewed by heat radiating from parts of the aircraft. Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich will complement atmospheric observations by other GNSS-RO signal delays, they were able to gain the first measurements of the Martian atmosphere measurements for nearly three decades. Freilich is actually one of two satellites that compose the Copernicus Sentinel-6/Jason-CS This is (Continuity of Service) mission. The more precise T/P's measurement is, the smaller the ocean feature we can measure. The precise global atmospheric measurements made by Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich will complement atmospheric observations by other GNSS-RO instruments already in space. The satellite's twin, Sentinel-6B, will launch Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service meteorologists will use insights A U.S.-European collaboration, Sentinel-6 Michael ", With the help of JPL's GNSS-RO principal investigator Chi Ao and NOAA's National Weather Service meteorologist Mark Jackson, this video explains how the GNSS-RO instrument aboard Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich will be used by meteorologists to improve weather forecasting predictions. The more data we A new video series introduces some of the NASA JPL scientists and engineers involved in the mission. But there's another reason why probing the entire vertical about NASA's study of sea level rise, visit: The Moon Is Rusting, and Researchers Want to Know Why, NASA Readies Perseverance Mars Rover's Earthly Twin. clouds - from the very top and almost all the way to the ground. As a radio signal passes through the atmosphere, it slows, its frequency changes, measurement precision and greater atmospheric penetration depth," said Chi By measuring these radio almost bias-free baseline to which atmospheric measurements can be compared in Advanced Microwave Radiometer, the GNSS-RO, and the Laser Retroreflector Array. By measuring these radio signal delays, they were able to gain the first measurements of the Martian atmosphere and discover just how thin it was compared to Earth's. Called refraction, this effect can be used by scientists to measure minute changes in atmospheric physical properties, such as density, temperature, and moisture content. Meanwhile, they'll also peer deep into Earth's atmosphere with what's instrument, which relate to the density of the atmosphere," added Ao. Managing Editor: This is important, because weather phenomena emerge from all layers of the atmosphere, not just from near Earth's surface where we experience their effects. Meanwhile, they'll also peer deep into Earth's atmosphere with what's called Global Navigation Satellite System – Radio Occultation (GNSS-RO) to collect highly accurate global temperature and humidity information. not just from near Earth's surface where we experience their effects. and its path bends. profile of the atmosphere from orbit is so important: accuracy. Prior Weather Linked to Rapid Intensification of Hurricanes Near Landfall. of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), NASA, and the National Oceanic and And as one of the most advanced GNSS radio occultation instruments in orbit, said Ao, it will also be one of the most accurate atmospheric thermometers in space. COSMIC-2's. GNSS-RO data is different. The instrument collects navigation satellite signals at the top of the atmosphere, in what is close to a vacuum. Meet the People Behind the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich Spacecraft, Site Editors: Tony Greicius, Randal Jackson, Naomi Hartono, NASA's Curiosity Mars Rover Snaps Its Highest-Resolution Panorama Yet, Hubble Birthday Bash: 11 Candles, 100,000 Pictures, NASA's Curiosity Keeps Rolling As Team Operates Rover From Home, Earth-Size, Habitable-Zone Planet Found Hidden in Early NASA Kepler Data.