Both Voskhod 2 crew members wore spacesuits, as it involved an EVA by cosmonaut Alexei Leonov. , Gemini was the first astronaut-carrying spacecraft to include an onboard computer, the Gemini Guidance Computer, to facilitate management and control of mission maneuvers. The Apollo Command/Service Module (CSM) was originally designed to take three men directly to the surface of the Moon, atop a large landing stage with legs. The capsule was covered with a nose cone to maintain a low-drag profile for launch, with a cylindrical interior cabin approximately 1 meter (3.3 ft) in diameter nearly perpendicular to the capsule's longitudinal axis. The main proponent of using ejection seats was Chamberlin, who had never liked the Mercury escape tower and wished to use a simpler alternative that would also reduce weight. The seven-seat SpaceX Dragon 2 capsule first launched crew to the International Space Station on 30 May 2020 on the Demo-2 mission for NASA.  Russian launch sites are far inland and most early launch aborts were likely to descend on land. The Vostok design was modified to permit carrying multi-cosmonaut crews, and flown as two flights of the Voskhod programme. It was used by crewed American spacecraft prior to the Space Shuttle program, and by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft starting in 2010, and is planned for use by the upcoming Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. These recovery operation mishaps can be mitigated by placing several vessels on standby in several different locations, but this is quite an expensive option. The service module would use two panels of electric solar cells for power generation, and contained a propulsion system engine.  Underneath the seat was the environmental control system supplying oxygen and heat, scrubbing the air of CO2, vapor and odors, and (on orbital flights) collecting urine. An airlock was needed because the vehicle's electrical and environmental systems were air-cooled, and complete capsule depressurization would lead to overheating. The Vostok was the Soviet Union's first crewed space capsule.  Its outer skin was made of René 41, a nickel alloy able to withstand high temperatures. Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water.  Six Vostok launches were successfully conducted, the last two pairs in concurrent flights. The PRC developed its Shenzhou spacecraft in the 1990s based on the same concept (orbital, reentry and service modules) as Soyuz. It was used by crewed American spacecraft prior to the Space Shuttle program, and by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft starting in 2010, and is planned for use by the upcoming Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. A space capsule is an often-crewed spacecraft that uses a blunt-body reentry capsule to reenter the Earth's atmosphere without wings. All Gemini and Apollo flights (Apollos 7 to 17) used the former, while Mercury missions from Mercury 6 to Mercury 9, as well as all Skylab missions and Apollo-Soyuz used the latter, especially the Skylab flights as to preserve all medical data. Soyuz 23 unintentionally landed on a freezing lake with slushy patches of ice during a snowstorm.. The spacecraft would then be brought alongside a ship and lifted onto deck by crane. A backup solid-fuel retro rocket was added to the top of the descent module. Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water. The longest flight was just short of five days, on Vostok 5 on June 14–19, 1963.. A modified version of the spacecraft was also used to ferry three crews to the Skylab space station, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission which docked with a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. Ejection seats were sufficient to separate the astronauts from a malfunctioning launch vehicle. It is also possible for the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to land in water, though this is only a contingency. Instructions (always with a 4-bit opcode and 9 bits of operand) could go in any syllable.. NASA solicited feasibility study designs from several companies in 1960 and 1961, while Faget and the Space Task Group worked on their own design using a conical/blunt-body capsule (Command Module) supported by a cylindrical Service Module providing electrical power and propulsion.  On top of the recovery compartment was the antenna section (5) containing both antennas for communication and scanners for guiding spacecraft orientation. The Apollo 15 spacecraft splashed down safely despite a parachute failure. Its core memory had 4096 addresses, each containing a 39-bit word composed of three 13-bit "syllables". The cyllindrical interior cabin was replaced with a wider, rectangular cabin which could hold either three cosmonauts seated abreast (Voskhod 1), or two cosmonauts with an inflatable airlock in between them, to permit extravehicular activity (Voskhod 2). The Apollo spacecraft was retired after 1974. He employed a small, lightweight bell-shaped reentry capsule, with an orbital crew module attached to its nose, containing the bulk of the mission living space. Capsules make up the majority of crewed spacecraft designs, although one crewed spaceplane, the Space Shuttle, has flown in orbit. The capsule was originally designed for use both as a camera platform for the Soviet Union's first spy satellite program, Zenit and as a crewed spacecraft. Apollo 11 was America's first moon landing mission and marked the first time that humans walked on the surface of another planetary body. It is also possible for the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to land in water, though this is only a contingency. He was pressured by Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev to postpone development of Soyuz to work on Voskhod, and later allowed to develop Soyuz for space station and lunar exploration missions. Aside from the possibility of the ejection seats seriously injuring the astronauts, they would also only be usable for about 40 seconds after liftoff, by which point the booster would be attaining Mach 1 speed and ejection would no longer be possible. The United States launched a total of two crewed suborbital Mercury capsules and four crewed orbital capsules, with the longest flight, Mercury-Atlas 9, making 22 orbits and lasting 32 and one-half hours. The 7K-OK model designed for Earth orbit used a 2,810-kilogram (6,190 lb) reentry module measuring 2.17 meters (7.1 ft) in diameter by 2.24 meters (7.3 ft) long, with an interior volume of 4.00 cubic meters (141 cu ft). The design used a spherical reentry module, with a biconic descent module containing attitude control thrusters, on-orbit consumables, and the retro rocket for orbit termination. The commercial space company SpaceX is developing its Dragon capsule to carry cargo, and eventually people, ... and capped off the mission with a successful rocket landing at sea. The second crew member wore a spacesuit as a precaution against accidental descent module depressurization. The airlock weighed 250 kg (551 lb 2 oz), was 700 mm (28 in) in diameter, 770 mm (30 in) high when collapsed for launch. The Gemini Guidance Computer weighed 58.98 pounds (26.75 kg). transcript. The Soviets were able to launch a second Vostok on a one-day flight on August 6, before the US finally orbited the first American, John Glenn, on February 20, 1962. , Gemini's emergency launch escape system did not use an escape tower powered by a solid-fuel rocket, but instead used aircraft-style ejection seats. Though the service propulsion engine was now bigger than required, its design was not changed since significant development was already in progress; however, the propellant tanks were downsized slightly to reflect the modified fuel requirement.  The heaviest spacecraft, Mercury-Atlas 9, weighed 3,000 pounds (1,400 kg) fully loaded. The Vostok was the Soviet Union's first crewed space capsule. It could be used to ferry astronauts to an Earth-orbiting space station, or for flights around or orbiting the Moon, and possibly landing on it. Everything was soaked in oxygen. The crewed flight program was delayed while design changes were made to the Block II spacecraft to replace the pure oxygen pre-launch atmosphere with an air-like nitrogen/oxygen mixture, eliminate combustible materials from the cabin and the astronauts' space suits, and seal all electrical wiring and corrosive coolant lines. This required a single-launch vehicle much larger than the Saturn V, or else multiple Saturn V launches to assemble it in Earth orbit before sending it to the Moon. At higher altitudes, where the ejection seats could not be used, the astronauts would return to Earth inside the spacecraft, which would separate from the launch vehicle.. The US launched its first Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard on a suborbital flight almost a month after the first crewed orbital spaceflight.