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255–267. Bagnall, Ptolemaic cleruchs, 16. (56) Christelle Fischer-Bovet, “Egyptian Warriors: The Machimoi of Herodotus and the Ptolemaic Army,” Classical Quarterly 63 (2013): 209–236, 222–223; on tax collection, see P.Tebt. 1 (254–231 BC) with Dorothy J. Thompson, “The Exceptionality of the Early Ptolemaic Fayyum,” in New Archaeological and Papyrological Researches on the Fayyum, Proceedings of the International Meeting of Egyptology and Papyrology, Lecce, June 8th–10th 2005 = “Papyrologica Lupiensia” 14 (2005) (Lecce: Centro di Studi Papirologici dell’Università degli Studi di Lecce, 2007): 309–310. (66) 407 and cleruchs in the Edfu nome.” In Edfu, an Egyptian Provincial Capital in the Ptolemaic Period: Brussels, 3 September 2001, edited by K. Vandorpe and W. Clarysse, pp. (126) 125 BC) and a large number mercenaries, xenoi Apollôniatiai, who bore Semitic names (I.Herm. For an example of local conflicts between two Egyptian neighboring cities, Pathyris and Hermonthis, where local troops supported opposing members within the dynasty in the second century, see Edmond Van ‘t Dack et al., The Judean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103–101 B.C. Moscou No. While Polybius’ account (5.107) suggests mistakenly that they were armed for the first time at this battle, it is in fact their number (20,000) that was truly exceptional and perhaps also their equipment as heavy infantry. For example Ptolemy IV paid 1,000 drachmas a day for one distinguished Aetolian officer to serve in his armies. Leuven: Peeters, 2002a.Find this resource: Vandorpe, Katelijn. Études sur l’armée et l’administration lagides,, 288–313 and Linda Maurine Ricketts, “The Epistrategos Kallimachos and a Koptite inscription: SB V 8036 reconsidered,” Ancient Society 13–14 (1982–3): 161–165. Festschrift für Werner Huss, zum 65. Boswinkel and Pestman, Archives privées, esp. Confused as to what to do, one of them puts it on, and gets struck by blue lightning, which apparently grants him special abilities. The increased status of these Egyptian troops enabled them the will to revolt and this led to a further crippling of the kingdom in the years proceeding Raphia. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1975.Find this resource: Thompson, Dorothy J. “Partage testamentaire d’une propriété familiale (Pap. Crawford, Kerkeosiris, 63, 69; Van ‘t Dack et al., The Judean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103–101 B.C. Sandra Scheuble-Reiter, “Die Organisation und Rolle der Reiterei in den Diadochenheeren—Vom Heer Alexanders des Grossen zum Heer Ptolemaios’ I,” in The Age of the Successors and the Creation of the Hellenistic Kingdoms (323–276 B.C.) Their daughters, also bearing double names, married (and divorced) Egyptian misthophoroi, as recorded in demotic contracts.126 Even if the presence of a Cretan officer could have been initiated by the government to oversee local troops, as Vandorpe suggests, Dryton illustrates that garrison life facilitated social and ethnic integration.127. Soldiers’ Socio-Economic Status and Cultural Environment. P.Amh. Diodorus 19.80.4, 84.1–4, 85.3; Plutarch, Demetrius 5; Justin, Epitome 15.1. The existence of misthophoroi-cleruchs and taktomisthoi-cleruchs, cleruchs still on active duty41 or mercenaries with allotted land (particularly officers),42 suggests that some mercenaries became cleruchs in the third century, with these categories being more fluid than previously thought. “Egyptian Warriors: The Machimoi of Herodotus and the Ptolemaic Army.” Classical Quarterly 63 (2013): 209–236.Find this resource: Fischer-Bovet, Christelle. (75) From the battle of Raphia to the 160s, a series of reforms occurred, in order to adapt to the increasing internal and external pressures on the Ptolemaic state in particular the Great Revolt in Upper Egypt (206–186), the Fifth Syrian War (202–195), during which the Ptolemies lost most their external possessions, Antiochus IV’s invasions of Egypt (170–168), and the revolt of Petosarapis (ca. ).” In L’armée en Égypte aux époques perse, ptolémaïque et romaine, edited by A.-E. Véïsse and S. Wackenier, pp. (87) 59–93. Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art 47–112,” Bulletin de l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale 109 (2009): 281–310. (2) At the same time, they were not reluctant to use Egyptian troops from the beginning of the dynasty; 20,000 of them even fought in the phalanx at Raphia in 217 and charged conjointly with the Greek phalanx. Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit 332–30 v. Chr. For more examples, see Uebel, Kleruchen, 351, n. 5; Launey, Recherches, 220–221; Scheuble-Reiter, Katökenreiter, 66, note 53; Fischer-Bovet, Army, 127. Available at this resource: Stefanou, Mary. 11–16. Bernand, Inscriptions grecques d’Hermoupolis Magna et de sa nécropole., 3; Launey, Recherches, vol. Second Edition (P. Petrie2). Above all, appropriate training and skilled leadership permitted coordination on the battlefield. The first problem with Polybius’ account versus the papyri is that ten hipparchies equals 4,000 to 5,000 cavalry-cleruchs, yet Polybius mentions only 3,000 cavalrymen (who may correspond to cleruchs).64 A second problem is that no Libyan hipparchy existed, while Polybius notes that many cavalrymen originated from Libya. Vandorpe, Apollonia, a Businesswoman, after discussing the debated question of Apollonia’s ethnicity, finally favors an Egyptian origin. Akten des Internationalen Symposions. 311–321. See Nick Sekunda, “Military Forces. The army by the time of Caesar’s campaigns in the eastern Mediterranean was a mere shadow of its former self, being highly disorganized and based around mercenaries and other foreign troops. 323–344, Leuven, 2001.Find this resource: Kruse, Thomas. (121) Social Mobility of Soldiers-Herdsmen in Upper Egypt.” Archiv für Papyrusforschung und verwandte Gebiete 54 (2008): 87–108.Find this resource: Vandorpe, Katelijn. For equipment and weapons, see Nick Sekunda, “The Ptolemaic Guard Cavalry Regiment,” Anabasis 3 (2012): 93–108; Scheuble-Reiter, Katökenreiter 95–111; Fischer-Bovet, Army, 128–131, with further bibliography. # 276. IV 47). Problems of Definition and Evidence,” in, Csaba A La’da, “Ethnicity, occupation and tax-status in Ptolemaic Egypt,”, Katelijn Vandorpe, “Persian Soldiers and Persians of the Epigone. Napoli, 19–26 maggio 1983, edited by M. Manfredi, 3, pp. (49) 407 and cleruchs in the Edfu nome,” in Edfu, an Egyptian Provincial Capital in the Ptolemaic Period: Brussels, 3 September 2001 (Brussels: Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van België voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten, 2003) and a forthcoming edition of P.Haun.Inv. (Leuven: Peeters, 2014): 477–478. I 121, with Andrew Monson, “Late Ptolemaic Capitation Taxes and the Poll Tax in Roman Egypt,” Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 51 (2014): 127–160, 134. Willy Clarysse, “A Royal Visit to Memphis and the End of the Second Syrian War,” in Studies on Ptolemaic Memphis (Leuven: Peeters, 1980), esp. Diodorus 20.46.5–52, with a detailed analysis by Hans Hauben, “Fleet Strength at the Battle of Salamis (306 B.C. If one looks at misthophoroi abroad, Prosopographia Ptolemaica, volume VI (15276–15711), they unsurprisingly come from the same area as the main sources (Sidon, Samos, Cyprus, North Syria), as noted by Bagnall, Ptolemaic Cleruchs, 16. Jan Krzysztof Winnicki, “Die Ägypter und das Ptolemäerheer,”, Jan Krzysztof Winnicki, “Die letzten Ereignisse des vierten syrischen Krieges. Such as the Achaean League in 169 during Antiochus IV’s invasion of Egypt. Vol. Moscou No. (107) Haun. Moscou No. The outcome was stronger control of Upper Egypt and a less costly army through smaller grants of klêroi, both of which were achieved through increasing use and integration of Egyptian and Greco-Egyptian troops. Herodotus (7.87) offers a description of soldiers of Egyptian origin during the Persian war: “on their heads they wore knitted helmets; they carried hollow shields with broad rims, naval spears and large battle-axes. 24, l. 4–10, with a new interpretation of the term strateuomenos by Scheuble-Reiter, Katökenreiter, 238–241. Scheuble-Reiter, Katökenreiter, 69–71; Fischer-Bovet, Army, 126–127, 132–133. 107–138. This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece. 69–86. Teubner, 1900); Jean Lesquier, Les institutions militaires de l’Egypte sous les Lagides (Paris: Ernest Leroux, 1911); Fritz Uebel, Die Kleruchen Ägyptens unter den ersten sechs Ptolemäern (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1968); Sandra Scheuble-Reiter, Die Katökenreiter im ptolemäischen Ägypten (Munich: Beck, 2012). Leuven: Peeters, 2001b.Find this resource: Zucker, Friedrich. See examples in P.Enteux, where cases are often complex, e.g., in P.Enteux. To sum up, Polybius provides a simplified description of troops, while contemporary documents suggest the combination and cooperation of soldiers from various origins. 3,”, Walter Scheidel, “From the ‘Great Convergence’ to the ‘First Great Divergence’: Roman and Qin-Han State Formation and Its Aftermath,” in, Roger S. Bagnall, “The Origins of Ptolemaic Cleruchs,”, Mary Stefanou, “Waterborne Recruits: The Military Settlers of Ptolemaic Egypt,” in, Edmond Van ‘t Dack and Hans Hauben, “L’apport égyptien à l’armée navale lagide,” in, Hans Hauben, “Fleet Strength at the Battle of Salamis (306 B.C. Inv. This essay discusses the recruitment and payment of soldiers, as well as the ethnic composition, organization, and training of the Ptolemaic army, through the examination of papyri, of inscriptions, and of Polybius’ account of the Ptolemaic victory against the Seleucids at Raphia. During the third and fourth missions, the group continues to encounter a masked shaman with red hood, wearing the same mask, who is seen commanding the lower ranks. 333, note 3 had suggested, and not after the Third Syrian War. Polybius notes that, at Raphia, 2,000 cavalrymen (of 5,000) were Greek mercenaries hired as misthophoroi, a term used in papyri of the same period for professional cavalry who served the Ptolemies but were not granted klêroi.58 Having come from a variety of cities and regions, they were trained together by Echecrates of Thessaly (5.65.6), one of the five top army commanders, and played an essential role in the victory by defeating Antiochus’ right wing (5.85). Historical and Topographical Outline of Greco-Roman Thebes.” In Hundred-Gated Thebes: Acts of a Colloquium on Thebes and the Theban Area in the Graeco-Roman Period, edited by S. P. Vleeming, Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 27, pp. 298–9 and CPR XVIII 10, l. 197. (113) Actes du colloque national, Paris, 14–16 octobre 1976 (Paris: Editions du Centre national de la recherche scientifique, 1977): 87 and note 1. In the battle for Gaza Antigonus’ cavalry, commanded by Demetrius, were initially successful but forced to retreat after Ptolemy out-flanked them. Yet translators were certainly not needed in the battle, when only simple orders could be heard, requiring few linguistic skills.77 Ptolemy’s appearance in front of his phalanx at a key moment of the battle boosted the moral of his Greek and Egyptian infantrymen (5.85.7). As the editors acknowledge, the possibility that they were cleruchs, had become cleruchs, or were a combination of mercenaries and cleruchs still stands. “Ethnicity, Occupation and Tax-Status in Ptolemaic Egypt.” Egitto e vicino Oriente 17 (1994): 183–189.Find this resource: La’da, Csaba A. Prosopographia Ptolemaica. (99) London, 2007.Find this resource: Sänger, Patrick. The final showdown takes place at the top of the tower, against a great ethereal demon known only as the Avatar of Evil. 205), since Megamedes is the first individual known with an honorific a court title under Ptolemy IV. Abd el-Fattah, Ahmed, Abd el-Maksoud, Mohamed and Carrez-Maratray, Jean-Yves. “Appendix O. “Ptolemaic Possessions Outside Egypt.” In The Encyclopedia of Ancient History, edited by R. S. Bagnall, et al. (102) The machimoi should be understood as “fighting men,” the translation of rmṯ-qnqn in the Demotic section of the text, and can include other types of soldiers than those cleruchs with five arouras called machimoi in the papyri. bis VIII. Despite the strength of the Ptolemaic army, evidenced in 217 BC with the victory over the Seleucids at the Battle of Raphia the Ptolemaic kingdom itself fell into decline and by the time of Julius Caesar it was but a mere client-kingdom of the Roman Republic.

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