The objective of MSS was to provide repetitive daytime acquisition of high-resolution, multispectral data of the Earth's surface on a global basis and to demonstrate that remote sensing from space is a feasible and practical approach to efficient management of the earth's resources. Nearly one third of these were international scientists. 16, 1982 B. Wellman, W. L. Barnes, "Optical Remote Sensing of the Earth," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 24) 25). It consisted of three coaligned television cameras, one for each spectral band (band 1: blue-green, band 2: yellow-red, band 3: near IR). 21). Figure 15: Example of an early RBV scene covering northern New Jersey and including the New York City region (image credit: NASA). 6), In the timeframe of the early 1970s, the spacecraft (LS-1 and LS-2) used an OBC (OnBoard Computer) referred to as APO (Advanced Onboard Processor) and a 4096 word x 18 bit plated wire memory (a simple memory with hard wired logic). The system was then declared as "operational" and its management was turned over to NOAA (LS-4 in 1983 and LS-5 in 1984). Spacecraft Launch Mission Status Sensor Complement References Back to top, Observation of the Earth and its Environment. In the foreword of the U.S. Geological Survey’s “ERTS-1 A New Window on Our Planet,” published in 1976, then-director of the USGS, Dr. V. E. McKelvey, wrote: “The ERTS spacecraft represent the first step in merging space and remote-sensing technologies into a system for inventorying and managing the Earth’s resources.”. • In 1979, the "Presidential Directive 54" under President Jimmy Carter transferred the Landsat operations from NASA, a research and development agency, to NOAA. • WRS-2 is being used for Landsat-4, -5 and -7 mission data (extension to WRS-1). • Following to a contentious commercialization effort, the Land Remote-Sensing Policy Act of October 1992 reversed the 1984 decision to commercialize the Landsat system. The cameras were operated every 25 s to produce overlapping images along the direction of spacecraft motion. The MSS consisted of an oscillating mirror scanning the ground in the cross-track direction by using six simultaneous line scans (one line scan per detector per spectral band). Also known as ERTS-A, the satellite was renamed Landsat 1 in 1975 and collected data until January 1978. LXIII, No. The new technique of scanning had indeed the promise of more things to come (making imagery quantitatively available to computer processing methods). Figure 6: Detail map of Landsat-8 image acquired with OLI on 10 April 2018. 1.2, April 2020): U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2015–3081, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20153081. Video data from the RBV were transmitted (2265.5 MHz) in both real-time and tape recorder modes. Scientists and educators found the data difficult to impossible to afford for research and teaching. The information compiled and edited in this article was provided by Herbert J. Kramer from his documentation of: "Observation of the Earth and Its Environment: Survey of Missions and Sensors" (Springer Verlag) as well as many other sources after the publication of the 4th edition in 2002.