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The primary function of the record and playback subsystem is to record unprocessed space shuttle instrumentation data during tests and launch countdowns. Movable platforms for access to certain orbiter components and equipment for jacking the orbiter are also provided. "Endeavour, STS-126 crew lands on temp California runway", "Dryden Supported Many Aspects of Space Shuttle Missions", "NASA – Roster of Runways Ready to Bring a Shuttle Home", "John F. Kennedy Space Center – Space Shuttle Transoceanic Abort Landing (TAL) Sites", "Lonely Easter Island Will Be Emergency Shuttle Landing Site", "RAF Fairford on standby for Space Shuttle landing", "Space Shuttle Landing and Rollout Training at the VerticalMotion Simulator", NASA Names North Carolina Airport Emergency Landing Site for Shuttle, "TRANSPORT CANADA NASA SPACE SHUTTLE EMERGENCY LANDING SITE CONTINGENCY PLAN", Space Shuttle abort modes#Emergency landing sites, "The Space Shuttle and Vandenberg Air Force Base", The Bulletin - Google News Archive Search, "The Air Force Space Shuttle Program: A Brief History", "Lincoln Airport (LNK/KLNK) (Lincoln, Nebraska)", Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory (SAIL), Shuttle-Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Space_Shuttle_landing_sites&oldid=982615281, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 October 2020, at 07:28. The runway edge lighting and approach light systems are controlled by the operations staff from the landing aid control building. The shuttle landing facility includes a 550- by 490-foot aircraft parking apron, or ramp, located near the southeastern end of the runway. This length also makes the SLF Runway one of the longest runways in the world. This test supports an important function for the KSC launch team. After safing and washing, the solid rocket booster casings are moved into the disassembly facility for disassembly to the level of major elements, consisting of eight solid rocket booster segments, the two aft skirt assemblies and the two forward skirt assemblies. Click Here for LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER RETRIEVAL, DISASSEMBLY AND REFURBISHMENT, SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER DISASSEMBLY FACILITY OPERATIONS, Jim Dumoulin (dumoulin@titan.ksc.nasa.gov). Three firing rooms have the capability of supplying prelaunch checkouts at the OPF, VAB and launch pads. Landings also occurred at Edwards Air Force Base in California, and one took place at White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico. The towing tractor is powered by a 191-kilowatt (256-horse power) diesel engine. Also Gran Canaria Airport was used as a back-up site. Traveling at a cruising speed of 10 to 12 knots, they reach the area in about 10 hours. From there, the segments are shipped by rail to the prime contractor in Utah for final refurbishing and loading with propellant. Space shuttle landings on the lake bed took place on Runways 05/23, 15/33 and 17/35. Portable, high-intensity xenon lights are available to illuminate the touchdown zone to support orbiter landings in darkness. The primary purpose of the modifications is to enhance safety by reducing space shuttle orbiter tire wear during landing. Automatic checkout from the firing rooms is accomplished using computer programs to monitor and record the prelaunch performance of all electrical and mechanical systems. Several runways are arrayed on the dry lakebed at Rogers Dry Lake,[6] and there are also concrete runways. Vehicle checkout, countdown and launch are conducted with the support of the information stored in the CDS. Predetermined measurements related to test requirements, launch commit criteria and performance specifications are stored in the CCMS computers. The information stored in these large-scale computers is immediately available to the smaller capacity computers of the checkout, control and monitor subsystem. The building supports control operations and houses the personnel who perform shuttle landing facility operations. The preferred finish line is the shuttle's home base at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida -- a 15,000-foot-long runway that is about as wide as the length of a football field. Command signals from the CCMS computer are sent to the various components and test circuits. The SLF Runway is significant as the site where all five orbiters originally arrived at KSC from their assembly plant in Palmdale, California. These recordings can then be played back for posttest analysis when firing room personnel are troubleshooting space shuttle or LPS problems. In addition, the thickness of the runway, 40 cm (16 in) at the center and 38 cm (15 in) at the sides, is necessary to accommodate the weight of the orbiter. Final payload and payload bay closeouts are completed in the PCR, and the orbiter payload bay doors are closed for flight. During what is called the malfunction run, the test simulates real-time failures of vehicle and ground systems. The CDS is located on the second floor of the LCC. Each ship recovers one SRB casing, three main parachutes, and a frustum-drogue combination. This verifies that all required personnel are ready to support the countdown activities. The joint use civilian/military Lincoln Airport/Lincoln Air National Guard Base in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA was designated as an alternate landing site for its 12,900 ft (3,932 m) long main runway. Additionally, the SLF has 1,001 feet (305 m) of paved overruns at each end. The 4573-m (15,000-ft) length of the runway, excluding the 305-m (1,000-ft) overruns at each end, was necessary due to the speed, 303 mph, with which the orbiter lands. Modifications have been made to the Kennedy Space Center.runway. The subsystem consists of instrumentation tape recorders, telemetry demultiplexing equipment, direct-write recorders, and computers to provide data-reduction capabilities. Payload-to-orbiter interface verifications are performed; and any required operations, such as spacecraft and upper stage battery charging, are conducted. The central data subsystem consists of large-scale computers (built by Honeywell) that store test procedures, vehicle processing data, a master program library, historical data, pre- and posttest data analyses and other data. The systems, known as ALSF-2, extend 3,000 feet beyond the runway ends and have five intensity settings. [15] Former TAL sites include Diego Garcia in the British Indian Ocean Territory; Cologne Bonn Airport in Germany; Ben Guerir Air Base, Morocco (1988–2002);[16] Casablanca, Morocco (up to 1986);[16] Banjul International Airport, The Gambia (1987–2002);[17] Dakar, Senegal; Rota, Spain; and Kano, Nigeria. The Shuttle Landing Facility covers 500 acres (2,000,000 m ) and has a single runway, 15/33. A diesel-driven ground-power generator provides the orbiter (or other aircraft being towed) with 115-volt, 400-hertz, three-phase ac electrical power. [32][33][34] No space shuttle landing ever occurred there. Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is open and has implemented safety protocols to ensure a trusted space for the well-being of our crew and guests. The countdown is initiated with a call to stations from the Launch Control Center firing room. The mate/demate device is intended to be used in the open air and is designed to withstand winds of up to 125 mph. View Health & Safety Procedures. While a space shuttle vehicle component is functioning, a sensor measures its performance and sends data back to the LPS for comparison against the checkout limits stored in the system's computer memory. [12] Zaragoza Air Base features Runway 30L with a length of 12,109 ft (3,691 m);[13] Morón Air Base features an 11,800 ft (3,600 m) runway;[14] and Istres Air Base features Runway 33 with a length of 12,303 ft (3,750 m). Landings may be made on the runway from the northwest to the southeast (Runway 15) or from the southeast to the northwest (Runway 33), and microwave scan beam landing system ground stations are duplicated to permit an approach from either direction. The ships then proceed back to Cape Canaveral and up the Banana River to Hangar AF at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. In certain launch abort situations where the mission profile supports a trajectory for such a landing, runways on the East Coast of the United States and Canada could have been used for an East Coast Abort Landing (ECAL) situation. The launch confidence test (formerly called the wet countdown demonstration test) validates tanking procedures and verifies ET hardware under simulated flight tanking conditions. The tanks are loaded with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen, which subsequently are loaded into the orbiter's onboard power reactant storage and distribution tanks during the launch countdown. The diver descends to a depth of approximately 110 feet and inserts a diver-operated plug in the nozzle of each casing. Under optimum sea conditions, booster retrieval operations are completed about five hours and 30 minutes after the launch. The runway is grooved to prevent hydroplaning in wet weather. Both ends of the runway utilize identical approach lighting systems with sequenced flashing lights. A built-in hold period, the duration of which depends on lift-off time, begins at the T minus 11 hours mark. Spacecraft that are integrated vertically in the space shuttle vehicle arrive at the launch pad ahead of the space shuttle and are temporarily stored in the PCR. The fourth floor is used for office areas. In parallel with other pad activities, payload operations are performed in the RSS's payload changeout room. Because the propellants are hypergolic, meaning they ignite on contact with one another, the oxidizer and fuel loading operations are conducted serially, not in parallel. From this point on, all functions in the terminal count are under computer control. The Shuttle Landing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida has a single 15,000-foot (4,600 m) concrete runway, 15/33. The subsystem is used to process and launch the space shuttle vehicle. The process continues throughout vehicle checkout. Both ships are used on shuttle missions. The following sites could have been used for an ECAL:[22] Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida; Plattsburgh International Airport, Plattsburgh, New York, Francis S. Gabreski Airport, Westhampton Beach, New York; Atlantic City International Airport, New Jersey; Myrtle Beach International Airport, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina; Wilmington International Airport, North Carolina[23] Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; Naval Air Station Oceana, Virginia; Dover Air Force Base, Delaware; Bangor International Airport, Maine; Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts; Bradley International Airport, Connecticut; Otis Air National Guard Base, Massachusetts; Pease Air National Guard Base, Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Halifax Stanfield International Airport, Enfield, Nova Scotia; Stephenville International Airport, Stephenville, Newfoundland; CFB Goose Bay, Labrador; Gander International Airport, Gander, Newfoundland, St. John's International Airport, St. Johns, Newfoundland;[24][25] Even with the sophisticated electronic approach and landing aids, visual aids have not been overlooked. Two specially designed and constructed retrieval vessels recover the boosters and their various components. Another loading operation is the filling of fixed service structure Dewar tanks with cryogenic reactants. [9] One mission, STS-3, used Runway 17 for a landing due to flooding at its originally planned landing site, Edwards Air Force Base. Lightning protection is included. Each vessel has a displacement of 1,052 tons. Four firing rooms occupy most of the third floor. Office space and a utilities systems control room are located on the first floor.

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